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What Languages Do They Speak in India?

What Languages Do They Speak in India

India, often dubbed as the subcontinent, is rich with a myriad of languages that add colors to its already vibrant cultural tapestry. The linguistic diversity of India is a reflection of its historical, geographical, and cultural complexities. Let’s delve into the linguistic journey across the myriad states and territories of India and explore how languages in India are more than just mediums of communication—they are the bearers of India’s age-old traditions, customs, and collective memory.

Key Takeaways

Official LanguagesHindi and English
Number of Languages21 officially recognized, 121 spoken in total
Most Spoken LanguagesHindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu
Script DiversityDevanagari, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, etc.

Official Languages: Bridging the Multilingual Divide

India recognizes two official languages at the national level—Hindi and English. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is the most widely spoken language. English, on the other hand, often serves as a subsidiary official language and is extensively used for official and administrative purposes, and is often seen as a ‘link’ language across India.

State Languages: Each State with its Own Linguistic Identity

Besides the national-level official languages, each state in India has the liberty to recognize its own official language(s) based on the linguistic demographics of the region. Here’s a glimpse into the official languages of some Indian states:

StateOfficial Language(s)
West BengalBengali
Tamil NaduTamil
Andhra PradeshTelugu

A Walk through India’s Linguistic Diversity

India is home to a vast number of languages, each with its own unique script, grammar, and phonology. The Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 languages. However, the 2011 Census of India enumerated about 121 languages, showcasing the immense linguistic diversity.

Indo-Aryan and Dravidian: The Dominant Language Families

The languages spoken in India primarily belong to four language families: Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, and Tibeto-Burman. Among these, the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian language families are the most predominant.

  • Indo-Aryan Languages: Covering a majority of northern, western, and central India, these languages include Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Oriya, Assamese, Maithili, and others.
  • Dravidian Languages: Predominantly spoken in southern India, this family includes Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam.

Lesser Known Languages: The Unheard Melodies

Besides the mainstream languages, there are numerous lesser-known languages spoken across different communities and regions in India. Some of these languages are facing the threat of extinction, and efforts are being made to preserve them. These include languages like:

  • Tulu: Spoken in parts of Karnataka and Kerala.
  • Khasi: Primarily spoken in Meghalaya.
  • Mizo: The official language of Mizoram.
  • Manipuri: Official language of Manipur.


The linguistic landscape of India is a testament to its rich cultural and historical heritage. Every language spoken here has a tale to tell, from the bustling streets of Delhi where Hindi dominates, to the serene backwaters of Kerala where Malayalam whispers the stories of the ages. The coexistence and intermingling of these languages narrate the story of India’s unity in diversity, making the country a linguistic kaleidoscope.