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What Language Do They Speak in Tunisia?

What Language Do They Speak in Tunisia

Tunisia, a gem of North Africa, is rich in history, culture, and language. As a nexus of various civilizations, it has embraced multiple linguistic influences, making its linguistic landscape as diverse as its history.

Key Takeaways

Official LanguageArabic (specifically Tunisian Arabic)
Other Spoken LanguagesFrench, Berber, English, Italian
Lingua Franca for BusinessArabic and French
Percentage of Arabic speakersOver 98%
Language OriginsArab, Berber, French, Ottoman Turkish

A Deeper Dive Into Tunisian Languages

Official Language: Arabic

Tunisia’s official language is Arabic, and it’s deeply entrenched in the country’s identity, culture, and administration. Yet, the Arabic spoken in Tunisia, often referred to as Tunisian Arabic or Tunisian Dialect, differs considerably from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). This dialect, which is colloquially spoken, is a unique blend of classical Arabic, local Berber terms, and influences from past colonizers.

Modern Standard ArabicTunisian Arabic
Used in official documents, news, and educationSpoken colloquially in daily life
Similar across the Arab worldDistinct and unique to Tunisia
Rich and formalVibrant and reflective of Tunisia’s cultural blend

French Influence and Usage

Under French colonial rule from the late 19th century until 1956, Tunisia has imbibed a significant French influence, especially in its language. Today, French remains a prominent language, especially in:

  1. Business and trade
  2. Education
  3. Media and literature
  4. Urban centers

Even street signs, official documents, and advertisements often feature both Arabic and French. While not official, its impact is undeniable.

Berber: The Indigenous Language

Before the Arab-Islamic conquest, Tunisia was primarily Berber speaking. Berber, an Afro-Asiatic language, still resonates in some parts of the country. There are small communities, especially in the south, where people continue to speak varieties of Berber, keeping the ancestral language alive.

Emerging Languages: English and Italian

With globalization and increasing interaction with Western nations, there’s a rising trend of English usage, especially among the younger generation. Schools are emphasizing English education, and many are now bilingual or even trilingual.

Italian, on the other hand, has a unique story. Due to historical ties with nearby Italy and the influence of Italian media, many Tunisians understand and speak a degree of Italian.

Understanding the Linguistic Landscape

Language and Daily Life

Most Tunisians are bilingual, and many are trilingual. A typical Tunisian might:

  • Speak in Tunisian Arabic with family and friends.
  • Use French in a professional setting or when discussing certain technical topics.
  • Converse in English or Italian with tourists or in specific business contexts.

Education and Language

The Tunisian education system has a significant French influence. Subjects like mathematics and science are often taught in French, while humanities and arts are taught in Arabic. This dual-language approach ensures that students are fluent in both languages by the time they graduate.

Why is Tunisia Multilingual?

The multilingual nature of Tunisia is a testament to its rich history. Here’s a timeline showcasing the major linguistic influences:

  1. Ancient Era: Berber communities dominated.
  2. 7th Century: Arab-Islamic conquest introduces Arabic.
  3. Late 19th to Mid 20th Century: French colonization brings forth French language and culture.
  4. 20th Century Onwards: Globalization introduces English and strengthens Italian ties.


Tunisia’s linguistic tapestry is a blend of its indigenous roots and the various civilizations that have influenced its shores. From the ancient Berber dialects to the global languages of today, Tunisia remains a fascinating study in linguistic diversity and adaptability. Whether you’re a traveler, linguist, or just curious, Tunisia offers a language experience that’s rich and unparalleled.