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What Language Do They Speak in Syria?

What Language Do They Speak in Syria

Key Takeaways

Primary LanguageArabic
Minority LanguagesKurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian
DialectsLevantine Arabic, notably Syrian Arabic
Second LanguageEnglish and French
Language of EducationPrimarily Arabic, but English and French are taught


Syria, a country located in the Middle East, boasts a rich tapestry of history and culture. Over the centuries, it has been a melting pot for various civilizations, leading to a diverse linguistic landscape. While Arabic is the dominant language spoken in Syria, there are several other languages and dialects that reflect the nation’s multifaceted culture and history.

1. Arabic: The Dominant Language

Arabic is the official language of Syria. It’s not only used in everyday communication but also in government, education, and media. The type of Arabic spoken in Syria is Levantine Arabic, which is a variety of the broader group of languages known as the Arab colloquial languages.

Syrian Arabic Dialects

The Arabic spoken in Syria is unique and somewhat distinct from the Arabic spoken in other Arab countries. Here are some sub-dialects of Syrian Arabic:

  • Damascene Arabic: Spoken primarily in the capital city of Damascus.
  • Aleppine Arabic: Spoken in the northern city of Aleppo.
  • Hama and Homs Arabic: Spoken in the cities of Hama and Homs.
  • Rural dialects: Differ from one region to another, especially between the west and east of the country.
DialectPrimary Region
Damascene ArabicDamascus
Aleppine ArabicAleppo
Hama and Homs ArabicHama and Homs
Rural DialectsVarious regions

2. Minority Languages: Beyond Arabic

Several minority languages are spoken in Syria, reflecting the diversity of its population.


Kurdish is spoken by the Kurdish minority, primarily in the northeastern parts of Syria. There are several dialects of Kurdish spoken in Syria, but Kurmanj is the most prominent.


Aramaic, an ancient language spoken during the times of Jesus Christ, is still spoken by a small fraction of the Syrian population, especially among the Assyrian community. Some villages in Syria have managed to preserve this ancient language as a living tongue.


The Armenian community in Syria, mainly settled in Aleppo, speaks Armenian. This community is a remnant of the survivors of the Armenian Genocide who sought refuge in Syria.


Circassian is spoken by the Circassian minority in Syria, primarily in regions near Homs and Aleppo.

LanguagePrimary Region or Community
KurdishNortheastern Syria
AramaicAssyrian community
ArmenianArmenian community in Aleppo
CircassianNear Homs and Aleppo

3. Foreign Languages: Western Influence

Syria’s colonial history and its engagement with the West have introduced foreign languages into its linguistic milieu.


English is widely taught in Syrian schools and is often used in the domains of business and academia. Many Syrians are fluent in English, especially those from urban centers.


Syria was under French mandate after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. This has left a significant impact on the country, especially in terms of language. French is taught in some schools, and many older Syrians, especially those who were educated before the 1960s, are fluent in it.

4. Language in Education and Media

Education System

In the Syrian education system:

  • Arabic is the primary medium of instruction.
  • English and French are taught as second languages.
  • Kurdish, in areas with a significant Kurdish population, might be taught or spoken informally, though it’s not officially a part of the curriculum.

Media Landscape

  • Television and Radio: Primarily in Arabic, with some channels broadcasting in Kurdish, Armenian, and other minority languages.
  • Print Media: Newspapers and magazines are predominantly in Arabic. However, there are publications in Kurdish, Armenian, and even English catering to specific communities.

5. The Importance of Language in Cultural Preservation

Language is an integral part of Syrian culture. Each language and dialect represents a unique facet of the nation’s identity. The preservation of these languages, especially minority ones like Aramaic and Circassian, is crucial for maintaining the rich tapestry of Syrian culture. Efforts are ongoing, both within the country and internationally, to document, promote, and revitalize these languages to ensure they are passed down to future generations.


Syria’s linguistic diversity is a testament to its rich history and cultural mosaic. While Arabic reigns supreme as the dominant language, the influence of minority languages and the prevalence of foreign languages showcase a nation that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for millennia. Understanding Syria’s languages offers a window into its soul, telling tales of empires, migrations, and resilience.