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What Language Do They Speak in Somalia?

What Language Do They Speak in Somalia

Key Takeaways

Official languageSomali
Spoken languagesSomali, Arabic, English, Italian
Writing systemLatin script (mainly), Arabic script for religious texts
Language familyAfroasiatic > Cushitic
DialectsNorthern Somali, Benaadir, Maay Maay


Somalia, located on the easternmost part of the African continent, has a rich linguistic tapestry. The country’s linguistic landscape is dominated by the Somali language, but several other languages also have a presence. In this article, we’ll delve into the history, distribution, and cultural significance of the languages spoken in Somalia.

The Somali Language

Somali is the official language of Somalia and is spoken by the majority of the country’s population. It belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family of languages.

Somali Dialects

While Somali is a unified language, there are various dialects spoken across different regions:

  1. Northern Somali (or Standard Somali): This is the most widely spoken dialect and serves as the basis for modern standard Somali.
  2. Benaadir: Spoken in the coastal Benadir region and parts of the Shabelle Valley.
  3. Maay Maay: Predominant in the Digil and Mirifle clans in the southern regions.

Despite these dialectal differences, mutual intelligibility is generally high among Somali speakers.

The Evolution of Somali’s Writing System

For much of its history, the Somali language was oral. Over the years, various scripts, including Arabic and indigenous writing systems, were used to transcribe Somali. However, it wasn’t until 1972 that the Latin script was officially adopted for writing Somali. Since then, literacy rates have dramatically increased.

ScriptUsage PeriodNotes
Arabic ScriptPre-1972Mainly used for religious and poetic texts
Osmanya ScriptEarly 20th CenturyAn indigenous script developed by Osman Yusuf Kenadid
Latin Script1972-PresentOfficial script for modern standard Somali

Other Languages in Somalia

While Somali is undeniably the dominant language, several other languages play roles in the country’s linguistic tapestry.


  • Significance: Arabic holds religious importance due to the dominance of Islam in Somalia. Many Somalis also learn Arabic for trade, diplomatic reasons, and cultural exchanges with Arab nations.
  • Usage: Primarily in religious contexts and schools. Also spoken among those who’ve had formal Arabic education or have ties to the Arab world.

English and Italian

Both English and Italian have histories rooted in colonial periods:

  • English: After British Somaliland was established, English gained prominence in the region. Today, it’s taught in schools and used in international diplomacy.
  • Italian: Somalia was an Italian colony from the late 19th century until World War II. Though less prevalent than English, Italian is still spoken among older generations and is occasionally used in business contexts.

Minority Languages

In addition to the main languages, there are also a few minority languages spoken by smaller communities:

  • Bravanese: A Swahili-based creole spoken in the city of Brava.
  • Kibajuni: Another Swahili-based creole spoken by the Bajuni minority.

Cultural Impact of Language in Somalia

Languages in Somalia do more than just facilitate communication; they carry cultural and historical significance.

  • Poetry and Proverbs: The Somali language is often dubbed “the nation of poets.” Poetry plays a central role in oral traditions, expressing societal values, history, and emotions.
  • Religious Practices: Arabic, being the liturgical language of Islam, is integral to religious teachings and practices in Somalia.
  • Colonial Legacy: The presence of English and Italian is a reminder of the colonial history, with both languages leaving lasting imprints on Somali culture and governance.


The languages of Somalia offer a window into the nation’s diverse history, colonial past, religious beliefs, and rich cultural traditions. While Somali is the bedrock of the country’s linguistic identity, the influence of other languages, such as Arabic, English, and Italian, showcases the nation’s interactions on global and regional stages. As Somalia continues to evolve, its linguistic landscape will undoubtedly reflect its dynamic history and aspirations for the future.