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What Language Do They Speak in Samoa?

What Language Do They Speak in Samoa

Key Takeaway Table

Official LanguageSamoan
Secondary LanguageEnglish
Percentage of Samoans Speaking SamoanOver 95%
Language FamilyPolynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages
Writing SystemLatin script


Samoa, an idyllic group of islands in the South Pacific, is a nation rich in cultural heritage and traditions. Among its most defining aspects is the Samoan language, or ‘Gagana Sāmoa’, which plays a pivotal role in the daily lives and identities of its inhabitants. This article delves deep into the linguistic landscape of Samoa, unveiling its intricacies, history, and influences.

The Dominance of the Samoan Language

The Samoan language is an integral part of the Samoan culture and identity. It’s more than just a means of communication—it’s a bond that connects Samoans to their ancestry and traditions.

Statistics and Usage

LocationPercentage of Samoan Speakers
SamoaOver 95%
American SamoaApprox. 90%
New Zealand (among Samoan community)Approx. 86%

The above table illustrates the dominance of the Samoan language in both Samoa and its diaspora. In Samoa itself, over 95% of the population speaks Samoan, making it the most widely spoken language. This widespread usage underscores the deep cultural and societal roots the language has in the region.

Key Features of the Samoan Language:

  • Tonal Nature: Like many Polynesian languages, Samoan is tonal, meaning that the pitch at which a word is spoken can change its meaning.
  • Polysynthetic Structure: This means that words can be quite long as they might contain a lot of information. For instance, verbs can include information about the subject, object, tense, and mood.
  • Vowel-heavy: Samoan has more vowels than consonants, leading to a melodic and fluid sound.

English: The Secondary Language

While Samoan is the heart and soul of the islands, English also holds a significant place in Samoan society, especially in the realms of business, governance, and education. English is often used:

  1. In governmental proceedings and documents.
  2. As a medium of instruction in schools.
  3. In business and commerce, especially with international dealings.
  4. By tourists and expatriates residing in Samoa.

Despite its prominence, English doesn’t overshadow the significance of the Samoan language. Instead, many Samoans are effectively bilingual, merging the global connectivity of English with the cultural depth of Samoan in their daily lives.

The Historical Evolution of the Samoan Language

Understanding the roots of a language can provide insights into the journey of its speakers. Samoan’s evolution mirrors the islands’ history, showcasing influences, interactions, and intrinsic developments.

The Early Days

Samoan is part of the Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages. Its origins can be traced back to the settlers who arrived in the Samoan islands around 3,500 years ago. These early inhabitants brought with them the foundations of what would become the Samoan language.

External Influences

Over the centuries, Samoa saw numerous visitors—ranging from European explorers to missionaries. These interactions introduced new words and concepts into the Samoan lexicon, enriching it.

InfluencerExample of Borrowed Word
English (due to colonial ties)‘tavale’ (from “table”)
German (from German colonization)‘tapalasi’ (from “compass”)

The Role of Language in Samoan Culture

Language is not just a tool for communication in Samoa; it’s a way of life. Here’s how the Samoan language intertwines with the islands’ cultural fabric:

  • Oral Traditions: Samoa has a rich tradition of oral storytelling. Elders pass down tales of yore, legends, and ancestral stories, keeping history alive through the spoken word.
  • Fa’a Samoa (The Samoan Way): This cultural code governs life in Samoa, emphasizing community, respect, and family. Language plays a pivotal role in upholding these values, with specific terms and greetings highlighting respect and societal roles.
  • Ceremonial Events: Whether it’s the ava (kava) ceremony or the siva (dance), language enhances the depth and meaning of these events, binding participants in a shared cultural experience.


The Samoan language is a vibrant testament to the islands’ history, culture, and values. While globalization and modernity bring with them a plethora of languages and influences, ‘Gagana Sāmoa’ remains the beating heart of Samoa, cherished and spoken with pride by its people. Whether you’re a linguist, a traveler, or just someone curious about the world, understanding the linguistic landscape of Samoa offers a window into the soul of this South Pacific paradise.