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What Language Do They Speak in Russia?

What Language Do They Speak in Russia

Key Takeaways

TopicQuick Fact
Official LanguageRussian
Percentage of Russian SpeakersOver 80% of the population
Other Languages SpokenTatar, Bashkir, Chuvash, Chechen, and many more
Language FamiliesIndo-European, Uralic, Turkic, Caucasian, and others
Language LearningRussian is the 8th most studied language globally


Russia, the world’s largest country by land area, has a rich tapestry of languages and dialects. The country’s vast expanse stretches from Eastern Europe all the way to northern Asia, enveloping a diverse range of ethnicities, cultures, and languages.

The Dominance of the Russian Language

The official language of Russia is Russian. Russian is an Indo-European language and belongs to the East Slavic group. While it is the most spoken language in the country, Russia houses numerous other languages that enrich its cultural and linguistic landscape.

Table 1: Top 5 Languages Spoken in Russia

LanguageNumber of Speakers (in millions)Region Predominantly Spoken
RussianApprox. 130Nationwide

Even though Russian is the predominant language, it’s important to recognize the substantial linguistic diversity present throughout the nation. Several regions in Russia have their own official languages alongside Russian.

Minorities and Their Languages

Russia’s federal structure allows its republics (often based on ethnicity) to have their own state languages, leading to the preservation and growth of various tongues.

Key Minority Languages:

  • Tatar: The most widely spoken Turkic language in Russia, primarily in Tatarstan.
  • Bashkir: Another Turkic language, predominantly in the Republic of Bashkortostan.
  • Chuvash: Spoken mainly in the Chuvash Republic, it’s a Turkic language but differs significantly from Tatar and Bashkir.
  • Chechen: A Northeast Caucasian language spoken in the Chechen Republic.
  • Udmurt: A Uralic language spoken in Udmurtia.

This is just the tip of the iceberg; there are well over 100 languages spoken across Russia.

Russia’s Linguistic Families

Russia’s linguistic diversity isn’t limited to just individual languages but extends to entire language families.

Table 2: Prominent Language Families in Russia

Language FamilyExample Languages
Indo-EuropeanRussian, Ukrainian, Belarusian
UralicUdmurt, Komi, Mari
TurkicTatar, Bashkir, Chuvash
CaucasianChechen, Avar, Lezgian
AltaicKalmyk, Tuvinian

The Influence of Russian on Minority Languages

The dominance of Russian has led to it influencing many of the country’s minority languages. This influence is seen in:

  1. Loanwords: Many minority languages have adopted Russian words, especially for modern concepts and technologies.
  2. Syntax and Grammar: There has been some convergence in sentence structures and grammar rules among certain languages.
  3. Script: Most languages in Russia now use the Cyrillic script, largely due to Russian influence, even if they previously used a different writing system.

Learning Russian

Given its widespread use in Russia and many of the post-Soviet states, Russian is a highly sought-after language globally.

  • Popularity: It’s the 8th most studied language in the world.
  • Reasons to Learn: Apart from communication, learning Russian opens doors to rich literature, cinema, and arts.
  • Challenges: The Cyrillic script, intricate grammar, and pronunciation can be challenging for new learners.


While Russian is undoubtedly the lingua franca of Russia, the country’s linguistic diversity is vast and deep-rooted. Understanding this diversity is pivotal to appreciate the rich cultural mosaic of this Eurasian giant. Whether you’re a language enthusiast, traveler, or someone with a keen interest in cultures, Russia’s linguistic landscape is nothing short of a treasure trove.