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What Language Do They Speak in Georgia?

What Language Do They Speak in Georgia

Georgia, a country at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, is rich in culture, history, and language. One can witness a blend of influences from neighboring nations yet a strong retention of its unique identity. At the heart of this identity is the Georgian language, which not only serves as a means of communication but also as a symbol of the country’s heritage and pride.

Key Takeaways
Primary LanguageGeorgian
Language FamilyKartvelian
ScriptGeorgian script (Mkhedruli)
Minority LanguagesAbkhaz, Ossetian, Russian, Armenian, Azerbaijani
Language InstitutionsTbilisi State University, Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics
Language PreservationRobust efforts are ongoing to preserve minority languages and dialects

The Georgian Language: A Brief Overview

Historical Background

The Georgian language is one of the oldest languages in the world, with a history that spans over 2,500 years. It’s a part of the Kartvelian language family, which also includes Svan, Megrelian, and Laz languages. These languages are indigenous to the Caucasus region, showcasing Georgia’s deep-rooted history and cultural richness.

Unique Script

The Georgian script is unique and has three writing systems: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri, and Mkhedruli. Among these, Mkhedruli is the modern script used in everyday communication.

AsomtavruliCapital letters, oldest scriptReligious texts, monumental inscriptions
NuskhuriLowercase letters, rounded shapesEcclesiastical writings
MkhedruliBoth uppercase and lowercase, modern scriptDaily communication, modern writings

Language Structure

Georgian has a rich phonological system and a complex grammatical structure, with a vast inventory of phonemes and a variety of morphological patterns. It’s an agglutinative language, meaning that words are formed by adding prefixes and suffixes to root words.

Minority Languages and Multilingualism

Georgia is home to a variety of ethnic groups, leading to a multilingual society. Besides Georgian, languages like Abkhaz, Ossetian, Russian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani are also spoken.

Regional Languages

  • Abkhaz and Ossetian: Predominantly spoken in the autonomous regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  • Megrelian and Svan: Spoken in the western and northwestern parts of Georgia.

Foreign Influence

Due to its geographical location and historical ties, Russian is widely spoken, especially among the older generation. Additionally, English is becoming increasingly popular as a second language, particularly among the younger population.

Language Institutions and Preservation Efforts

Educational Institutions

Tbilisi State University and the Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics are among the prominent institutions dedicated to the study and promotion of the Georgian language and other languages spoken in the country.

Preservation Efforts

There are robust efforts ongoing to preserve minority languages and dialects, including government and community initiatives to promote linguistic diversity and heritage.

Language LawA law promoting the use of Georgian as the state language, while also protecting minority languages
Educational ProgramsPrograms aimed at teaching minority languages and dialects
Cultural FestivalsCelebrations promoting linguistic and cultural diversity


The linguistic landscape of Georgia is as diverse as its cultural heritage. The predominance of the Georgian language, along with the presence of minority and foreign languages, reflects the country’s rich history and its openness to external influences, while still retaining a strong national identity. The efforts to preserve and promote linguistic diversity further highlight the importance of language as a cornerstone of cultural heritage in Georgia.