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What Language Do They Speak in Egypt?

What Language Do They Speak in Egypt

Egypt, a country known for its ancient civilization and picturesque monuments, has a rich linguistic heritage. The language spoken here is a mirror to its historical and cultural diversity. Let’s delve into the linguistic scene of Egypt and understand the languages spoken in this historically rich country.

Key Takeaways

Official LanguageModern Standard Arabic
Widely Spoken LanguagesEgyptian Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, English, French
Historical LanguagesAncient Egyptian, Coptic
Language of EducationMostly Arabic and English
Language of BusinessArabic, English
Foreign Language LearningEnglish and French are commonly learned as foreign languages

The Official Language: Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) holds the status of the official language in Egypt. It is used in the government, official documents, news broadcasts, and formal settings. MSA, derived from Classical Arabic, serves as a bridge among Arabic speakers from different regions as it remains unchanged across the Arab world.

Arabic Dialects in Egypt

Besides MSA, various dialects of Arabic are spoken across Egypt, with Egyptian Arabic being the most prevalent. Egyptian Arabic is a unique blend of the Arabic brought to Egypt by the Islamic conquests and the local languages that preceded it. Below is a table illustrating the notable Arabic dialects spoken in Egypt.

Egyptian ArabicMost common dialect, known for its distinct pronunciation and vocabulary.
Sa’idi ArabicSpoken in the southern parts of Egypt, has some differences in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Bedouin ArabicSpoken by the Bedouin communities in the Sinai Peninsula and the eastern desert.
Sudanese ArabicSome communities near the Sudanese border speak this dialect, sharing linguistic traits with Sudan.

Foreign Languages in Egypt

Due to its strategic geographical location and historical interactions with other nations, several foreign languages have found a place in Egypt’s linguistic environment.

English and French

  • English: English is a significant language in Egypt, often used in business, higher education, and the tourism industry. Many Egyptians learn English in school, and it is a common second language.
  • French: French, though less common than English, is also a notable foreign language in Egypt. Some schools offer French as a second language, and there are French-language schools and universities in Egypt.

Other Languages

Various other languages are spoken by smaller communities or expatriates in Egypt. These include Italian, German, Greek, and Armenian among others.

Historical Languages: A Glimpse into the Past

Egypt’s historical languages paint a vivid picture of its ancient civilizations.

Ancient Egyptian and Coptic

  • Ancient Egyptian: The language of ancient Egypt, written in hieroglyphs, was spoken for over four millennia. It evolved over time, with Late Egyptian and Demotic as its later forms.
  • Coptic: Coptic emerged as the language of the Christian community in Egypt. It is the latest phase of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used liturgically by the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Language in Education and Business

Education and business sectors in Egypt operate primarily in Arabic and English. Below is a summary table of the languages used in these sectors.

SectorLanguage Usage
EducationArabic is the medium of instruction in most schools, while English is often used in higher education.
BusinessArabic and English are the primary languages used, with English often preferred in multinational corporations.


Egypt’s linguistic landscape is a reflection of its rich history and cultural exchanges over millennia. From the ancient scripts adorning the walls of Pharaohs’ tombs to the modern dialects echoing in the bustling streets of Cairo, the language tells tales of Egypt’s glorious past and its dynamic present.