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What Language Do They Speak in Canada?

What Language Do They Speak in Canada

Canada, the world’s second-largest country by land area, is not only diverse in its landscapes but also in its languages. Home to a rich tapestry of linguistic traditions, the nation’s languages reflect its unique history and multicultural ethos. In this exploration, we delve into the official languages, indigenous languages, and the multicultural linguistic phenomena observed in Canada.

Key Takeaways

Official LanguagesEnglish (56.9%), French (21.3%)
Indigenous LanguagesOver 70 distinct languages
Multilingual ProvincesQuebec, New Brunswick
Language LegislationOfficial Languages Act, 1969
Linguistic DiversityHigh, especially in urban areas

Official Languages: English and French

Canada has two official languages, English and French, which have equal status and rights according to the Official Languages Act of 1969. The act ensures that citizens have the choice of communicating with federal government institutions in either language.

The linguistic split is a reflection of Canada’s colonial history. Here’s how the official languages are distributed across the provinces:

ProvincePredominant Language
New BrunswickEnglish and French
All OthersEnglish


English is the most widely spoken language, with around 56.9% of the population claiming it as their first language according to the 2016 Census. It’s the predominant language in all provinces except Quebec.


French is the mother tongue of about 21.3% of the population, primarily in Quebec where 77.1% of residents are francophones. New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, also has a significant Francophone minority.

Indigenous Languages: Echoes of the Ancient

Canada is home to a rich variety of indigenous languages, reflecting the country’s first nations’ cultures and histories. Over 70 distinct indigenous languages are reported, grouped into 12 language families.

  1. Algonquian Languages:
    • Cree
    • Ojibwe
    • Mi’kmaq
  2. Athabaskan Languages:
    • Dene
    • Dogrib
    • Slavey

… and many others, each with its own unique set of dialects and traditions.

The Multicultural Mosaic

Canada’s multicultural policy encourages linguistic diversity. Besides the official and indigenous languages, many other languages are spoken due to immigration. Here’s a glimpse of the linguistic diversity in Canadian households:

LanguagePercentage of Speakers

Language Legislation and Education

Language policies in Canada ensure the protection and promotion of languages. The education system also plays a pivotal role in fostering bilingualism and multilingualism.

  • Bilingual Education:
    • French immersion programs are popular in English-speaking provinces.
    • English-language education is accessible in Quebec.
  • Indigenous Language Revitalization:
    • Efforts are underway to revitalize indigenous languages through educational programs and community initiatives.


Canada’s linguistic landscape is a testament to its cultural diversity and historical richness. The official languages of English and French, the myriad indigenous languages, and the multitude of languages brought by immigrants contribute to the nation’s multicultural identity.