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What Language Do They Speak in Bulgaria?

What Language Do They Speak in Bulgaria

Key Takeaway

CountryOfficial LanguageSecondary LanguagesAlphabet
BulgariaBulgarianTurkish, RomaniCyrillic


Nestled in the southeastern corner of Europe, Bulgaria is a nation with a rich tapestry of history, culture, and tradition. One of the most common questions about Bulgaria, especially from tourists or those interested in the country, is about its language. This article will delve deep into the linguistic landscape of Bulgaria.

The Bulgarian Language: An Overview

Bulgaria’s official language is Bulgarian. Rooted in the Slavic family of languages, Bulgarian boasts its own unique characteristics that make it distinct.

Characteristics of Bulgarian

  1. Alphabet: Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, which is different from the Roman script utilized by many Western languages.
  2. Tense system: Unlike most Slavic languages, Bulgarian has a more developed verbal tense system similar to Western European languages.
  3. Definite Articles: Bulgarian places definite articles as suffixes at the end of nouns, which is unique among Slavic languages.
Slavic LanguageUses CyrillicDefinite Article Placement
RussianYesNo suffix
SerbianYes (also uses Latin)No suffix
BulgarianYesAs a suffix

A Peek into the History of the Bulgarian Language

Bulgarian, like all languages, has evolved over time. The historical development of Bulgarian can be broadly categorized into three periods:

  1. Old Bulgarian (9th to 11th century)
  2. Middle Bulgarian (12th to 15th century)
  3. Modern Bulgarian (16th century to present)

Each period saw shifts in phonetics, syntax, and lexicon, shaped by migrations, occupations, and cultural exchanges.

Other Languages Spoken in Bulgaria

While Bulgarian is the official language and is spoken by the vast majority, there are several minority languages that hold significance in the country.


The Turkish-speaking minority in Bulgaria is considerable. This is a result of the long Ottoman rule over Bulgaria, which lasted nearly five centuries. Today, Turkish is spoken predominantly in certain regions of Bulgaria, particularly in the southern and eastern parts.


The Romani community in Bulgaria also makes up a significant portion of the population. With their distinct culture and traditions, they contribute to the linguistic diversity of the country by speaking the Romani language.


There are also smaller communities of Russians, Armenians, and Greeks in Bulgaria, each adding to the multilingual tapestry.

Bulgarian and Its Regional Dialects

Languages are seldom uniform across a country, and Bulgarian is no exception. The language has several regional dialects. Some of the primary ones include:

  • Eastern Bulgarian dialects
  • Southwestern Bulgarian dialects
  • Rup dialects
  • Shop dialect

Each dialect carries its own idiosyncrasies in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, and even grammatical structures.

DialectRegionCharacteristic Feature
EasternEastern BulgariaMore nasal sound patterns
SouthwesternSouthwest BulgariaSpecific word endings
RupCentral and Western BulgariaDistinct intonation
ShopSofia regionUnique vocabulary and intonation

The Importance of Bulgarian in the Global Landscape

In an increasingly interconnected world, every language plays a role in global communication. Bulgarian might not be as widely spoken as English or Spanish, but it is:

  • A key language for businesses investing in Bulgaria.
  • Essential for scholars studying Balkan or Slavic history and culture.
  • A gateway for travelers aiming to deeply connect with Bulgarian people and traditions.


Bulgaria, while small in size, is linguistically rich and diverse. Understanding its language is the first step in truly appreciating this beautiful country and its heritage. Whether you’re a tourist, a business professional, or simply a curious soul, knowing the linguistic landscape of Bulgaria can open doors to deeper connections and richer experiences.