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What Language Do Armenians Speak?

What Language Do Armenians Speak

Key Takeaways:

Official LanguageArmenian
DialectsEastern Armenian, Western Armenian
ScriptArmenian Alphabet
Language FamilyIndo-European
Secondary LanguagesRussian, English, among others


The Republic of Armenia, nestled in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, has a rich history dating back thousands of years. Central to its cultural and national identity is the Armenian language. But what exactly is this language, and what are its features? Let’s dive deep into understanding the linguistic fabric of Armenia.

Historical Overview of the Armenian Language

Armenian, belonging to the Indo-European language family, has been the language of the Armenians for millennia. Over the course of history, it has seen several transformations, adaptations, and influences from neighboring countries and empires.

  1. Urartian Period: Before the adoption of Armenian as the official language, the region saw the influence of the Urartian language.
  2. Classical Armenian (Grabar): By the 5th century AD, Armenian began to be written, primarily using the Armenian alphabet invented by Mesrop Mashtots.
  3. Middle Armenian: From the 12th to the 16th century, the language underwent significant changes in phonetics and vocabulary.

Today, the Armenian language continues to evolve, reflecting the dynamic cultural shifts and global influences of the modern era.

Armenian Dialects: Eastern vs. Western

The Armenian language is primarily split into two major dialects: Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian.

Eastern Armenian– The official dialect of the Republic of Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh.<br>- Influenced by Russian, especially during the Soviet era.<br>- Spoken in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, and in communities in Iran.
Western Armenian– Originated in the western parts of the Armenian Highlands, now modern-day Turkey.<br>- Spoken by the Armenian diaspora, particularly in North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia.<br>- Has different pronunciation and vocabulary compared to Eastern Armenian.

The Armenian Alphabet and Script

The Armenian alphabet is not only a tool for writing but also a symbol of Armenian identity and pride. Comprising 39 letters, this script is unique to the language and is renowned for its beauty.

Key Features:

  • Invented in 405 AD by the Armenian monk Mesrop Mashtots.
  • Used to translate the Bible into Armenian, which played a significant role in consolidating Christianity in Armenia.
  • Despite external pressures and changes over time, the Armenian script has remarkably retained its original form.

Table: Sample Armenian Letters

ԱAa as in “apple”
ԲBeb as in “bat”
ԳGeg as in “go”

Secondary Languages Spoken in Armenia

While Armenian remains the heart and soul of the nation’s linguistic landscape, several other languages resonate in its streets, homes, and institutions. Some of the secondary languages spoken include:

  • Russian: Due to Armenia’s past as a Soviet republic, Russian is widely spoken, especially among the older generation.
  • English: Gaining popularity, especially among the younger population, due to global connectivity and the internet.
  • Kurdish, Assyrian, and Greek: Spoken by minority communities residing in Armenia.


The Armenian language, with its deep roots and dynamic branches, stands as a testament to the resilience and rich heritage of the Armenian people. Whether it’s through the poetic verses of ancient manuscripts or the chatter in a Yerevan café, the spirit of Armenia lives on through its language.

For anyone looking to immerse themselves in Armenian culture, a grasp of its language — its sounds, rhythms, and nuances — is a journey worth undertaking.